Primer: National environmental management protected areas act
The National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (NEMPAA) is a complimentary act to the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA). NEMPAA aims to provide for the protection and conservation of ecologically viable areas that are representative of South Africa’s biological diversity. This objective is accomplished through the declaration and management of protected these identified areas (section 2).
The restrictions on the development of protected areas in NEMPAA are in addition to any restrictions placed on prospecting or mining of minerals, or exploration or production of petroleum resources, in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (MPRDA). In the event of any conflicts between these two acts, the provisions of NEMPAA will prevail if the conflict concerns the management or development of protected areas (NEMPAA section 7(1)(a)).
The MPRDA prohibits any right for the prospecting or mining of minerals from being granted over residential areas, public roads, public railways, public cemeteries, land being used for public or government purposes or over any other area identified by the Minister of Mineral Resources, unless the minister is satisfied that the granting of the right is in the national interest, the operations will take place within the framework of the national environmental policies and the interests of other holders of prospecting or mining rights will not be adversely affected (section 48).
Restrictions imposed by NEMPAA
In addition to the restrictions under the MPRDA, NEMPAA could potentially affect the mineral and petroleum industry in two ways. First, despite being granted the required mineral right in terms of the MPRDA, no person may conduct prospecting, mining, exploration or any related activities in any:
- nature reserve or national park;
- protected environment without the prescribed permissions;
- world heritage site;
- marine protected area; or
- protected forest areas, forest nature reserves and forest wilderness areas that have been declared in terms of the National Forests Act (section 48(1) and 48A(1)(g)).
Further, if an area has been or is proposed to be declared as part of a national protected area or as part of a national park after a mineral right is granted, the responsible minister is empowered to expropriate or cancel a mineral right, servitude or any other privately held right in the land (sections 80, 81, 82 and 84). When cancelling or expropriating any rights the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and the Expropriation Act are applicable. These require the right holder to be compensated for the expropriated right.
- Expropriation Act, No. 63 of 1975
- Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, No. 28 of 2002 (MPRDA)
- National Environmental Management Act, No. 107 of 1998 (NEMA)
- National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, No. 57 of 2003 (NEMPAA)
- National Forests Act, No. 84 of 1998