Primer: Financial provisions for environmental rehabilitation
On 20 November 2015 the Financial Provisioning Regulations 2015 was published and became effective.>
The regulations intend to regulate the financial provisions that holders of rights and permits must give in terms of the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) for the cost associated with the management, rehabilitation and remediation of environmental impacts that result from prospecting, exploration, mining or production operations that are undertaken in South Africa (regulation 2 and 3).
The requirement to provide a financial provision
Before conducting any prospecting or mining for minerals, or exploration or production of petroleum resources, a person must be grant granted an environmental authorisation in terms of NEMA (section 5A(a) of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (MPRDA).
One requirement of being granted the environmental authorisation is that the applicant must provide the prescribed financial provision (section 24P(1) of NEMA). This financial provision is intended to cater for the rehabilitation, closure and on-going post decommissioning management of negative environmental impacts that may arise from the operations.
No prospecting or mining for minerals, or exploration or production of petroleum resources can take place unless the financial provision is in place and an environmental authorisation has been granted.
Methods that can be used to provide the financial provision
There are three financial vehicles that can be used to give the necessary financial provision. These vehicles can be used individually or as a combination. They are (regulation 8(1)):
- financial guarantee issued by a registered bank, insurer or underwriter; cash that must be deposited into an account administered by the Minister of Mineral Resources (Minister); or
- a contribution to a trust fund established specifically for this purpose, provided that:
- the trust fund can't be used for annual rehabilitation, or for the final rehabilitation, decommissioning and closure at the end of life of the operations (regulation 8(1)(c)(i)); and
- the trust is established in terms of a trust deed that complies with the prescribed format (regulation 8(7)).
Quantum of the financial provision
The financial provision must be equal to the actual costs for implementing the following plans and reports for a period of at least 10 years (regulation 7):
- rehabilitation and remediation, as reflected in the
annual rehabilitation plan(regulation 5(a) and 6(a));
- decommissioning and closure at the end of life of the operations, as reflected in the
final rehabilitation, decommissioning and mine closure plan(regulation 5(b) and 6(b)); and
- remediation of latent and residual environmental impacts, including the pumping and treatment of polluted or extraneous water, as reflected in the
environmental risk assessment report(regulation 5(c) and 6(c)).
These plans and reports are prescribed in the regulations (appendix 3, 4 and 5), so care must be taken to make sure that the plans and reports are compliant, and that they contain the prescribed minimum information (regulation 12(1), (2), and (3)).
The quantum must be determined by a specialist (regulation 9(1)), and in the determination the liability can't be deferred against any assets at mine closure, or mine infrastructure salvage value (regulation 9(2)).
If the Minister is not satisfied with the determination, the Minister may request that the determination or assessment be:
- adjusted to a satisfactory amount;
- reviewed externally by another specialist; or
- confirmed by an independent assessor (regulation 14(2)(c)).
The holder of the right or permit is responsible for all costs related to the determination or assessment of the financial provision (regulation 14(3)).
Compulsory annual review and adjustment
An annual review of the adequacy of the financial provision must be done (regulation 11(2)), and must be submitted within 3 months of the end of the company's financial year (regulation 11(3)(c)(ii)). This period can be extended by a maximum of 3 months if an application for extension, with reasons, is submitted to the Minister (regulation 12(7) and (8)).
The results of the assessment must:
- be audited and signed by an independent auditor;
- be included in the
environmental audit reportprepared according to the Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations 2014;
- be signed off by the chief executive officer, or person appointed in a similar position; and
- be submitted to the Minister (regulation 11(3) and 13(3)).
The independent auditor's declaration must reconcile the financial provision with the estimates of rehabilitation exposure and liabilities (regulation 12(5)), and must include any contingent liabilities and restricted cash that may be associated with the financial provision liability (regulation 12(6)).
If there is a shortfall in the quantum of the financial provision, the financial provision must be increased within 90 days from the signature of the auditor's report (regulation 11(4)(a)).
Any excess in the quantum of the financial provision can only be deferred against future assessments (regulation 11(4)(b)).
The public's right of access to information
The holder of a right or permit must make its environmental management programme available to the public (regulation 13(1)).
The environmental management programme must:
- be published on the holders public website, if the holder has one;
- be available at the site office of the operations; and
- be accessible to the public on request.
Placing operations under care and maintenance
A holder of a right or permit must lodge an application with the Minister if they want to place their operations under care and maintenance (regulation 16(1)). No operation may be placed under care and maintenance without the Ministers approval (regulation 16(6)).
The application to place operations under care and maintenance must include:
- an explanation of the merits of placing the operation under care and maintenance; and
care and maintenance plan, that contains the minimum prescribed information (regulation 16(2) and appendix 6).
Permission to place an operation under care and maintenance can be granted for a maximum of 5 years, with or without conditions, and at the end of this period the approval will be reviewed by the Minister (regulation 16(4)).
The care and maintenance plan must be audited and updated annually (regulation 16(5)(b)).
The withdrawal of the financial guarantee by financial institutions
If a financial institution wants to withdraw the guarantee that it has provided for the financial provision:
- the financial institution must give the Minister at least four months written notice of its intention by registered mail (regulation 8(3)(a)); and
- the Minister must then give the holder of the right or permit 60 days to provide an alternate arrangement for the required financial provision (regulation 8(4)).
If the holder of the right or permit can't provide an alternate arrangement within the 60 day period, the Minister must call on the financial guarantee. This money is then held by the Minister until an alternate arrangement can be provided for the financial provision (regulation 8(5)).
If the holder of the right or permit does provide an alternate arrangement then the Minister must release the first guarantee within 7 days of receiving the alternate financial provision.
Note: A similar note, with emphasis on pre-existing financial provisions and the transitional arrangements, can be found here.
- 2015 Financial Provision Regulations GN R1147 in GG 39425 of 20 November 2015
- Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, No. 28 of 2002 (MPRDA)
- National Environmental Management Act, No. 107 of 1998 (NEMA)
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