A Primer – National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act

The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, No 10 of 2004 (NEMBA) is a complimentary act to the National Environmental Management Act, No 107 of 1998 (NEMA). NEMBA aims to provide for the management and conservation of South Africa’s biodiversity within the framework of NEMA. These objectives are promoted by giving protections to ecosystems and species that are threatened or in need of protection (section 51).

Numerous species of flora and fauna have also been identified as a threatened or protected species, and two hundred and twenty five threatened ecosystems have already been identified in terms of NEMBA (sections 52, 56 and GN 1002 in GG 34809 of 9 December 2011).

NEMBA restrictions

A permit must be acquired before conducting any “restricted activities” involving any protected species of flora or fauna (section 57(1)). These restricted activities include:

  • cutting, chopping off, uprooting, damaging or destroying any specimen; and
  • conveying, moving or trans-locating any specimen (section 1).

NEMBA doesn’t have any exemptions for the mineral and petroleum industry, and may have an impact on planned prospecting, mining, exploration or production activities.

A Guide to the Mineral and Petroleum Industry in South Africa

What laws apply to the mineral and petroleum industry in South Africa? What potential pitfalls must a person look out for when they consider entering into these industries in South Africa?

Unfortunately this isn’t an easy or quick question to answer because the applicable laws and regulations will depend on the projects scope and characteristics – the intended mining or production activities, infrastructure requirements and the project location. But there are two acts that can serve as a starting point. The principle act regulating the mineral and petroleum sector is the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (MPRDA), and the principle act regulating environmental management is the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA).

In any project it may, however, be necessary to consider various other laws and regulations. The purpose of this note is to give a starting point for a more in depth exploration of the laws applicable to the mineral and petroleum industry.

The following list has links to discussions on some of the acts and regulations in South Africa that may be considered. This list is unfortunately incomplete and non-exhaustive.

Mineral and petroleum licensing and permitting

Environmental management

Water management


  • Income Tax Act, No 58 of 1962 (Income Tax Act);
  • Mineral and Petroleum Resources Royalty Act, No 28 of 2008 (Royalty Act);
  • Mineral and Petroleum Resources Royalty (Administration) Act, No 29 of 2008 (Royalty Admin Act).

Industry specific legislation:

  • Diamonds Act, No 56 of 1986 (Diamonds Act);
  • Petroleum Products Act, No 120 of 1977 (Petroleum Products Act);
  • Precious Metals Act, No 37 of 2005 (Precious Metals Act).