The National Environmental Management Act, No 107 of 1998 (NEMA) is the principle act that governs environmental management in South Africa. NEMA was enacted with the objectives of ensuring sustainable development and use of natural resources. This act is complimented by other specific environmental management acts, each regulating more specific environmental concerns. These complimentary acts include the NEMA: Protected Areas Act, NEMA: Biodiversity Act and the National Water Act.
During 2013 and 2014 NEMA and the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, No 28 of 2002 (MPRDA) underwent a series of amendments. These amendments sought to remove all of the provisions regulating environmental management from the MPRDA and insert provisions to regulate the mineral and petroleum industry into NEMA. This created a single environmental management system that now regulates environmental management in South Africa.
Environmental authorisations in terms of NEMA
The key provisions in NEMA that are applicable to the mineral and petroleum industry are that must be considered is the requirement to obtain regulatory approval before commencing with certain listed activities (section 23 and 24). Before any prospecting, mining, exploration or production of mineral or petroleum resources, or any other incidental work, can be undertaken a person must granted an environmental authorisation in terms of NEMA in addition to the permit or right required in terms of the MPRDA (section 5A(a) and (b) of the MPRDA and section 24 of NEMA).
The application for the required environmental authorisation is done as part of the application for a right or permit in terms of the MPRDA. When submitting an application for a right or permit in terms of the MPRDA an applicant is required to submit an environmental management programme (section 24N(1A) of NEMA), also referred to as an EMP, within the following periods once an application has been accepted:
- Prospecting Right: 60 days (section 16(4)(a) of the MPRDA);
- Mining Right: 180 days (section 22(4)(a) of the MPRDA);
- Mining Permit: Simultaneously (section 27(2) of the MPRDA);
- Reconnaissance Permit: 60 days (section 74(4)(b) of the MPRDA);
- Exploration Right: 120 days (section 79(4)(b) of the MPRDA);
- Production Right: 180 days (section 83(4)(b) of the MPRDA).
It must be kept in mind that NEMA regulates more than just the mineral and petroleum industry. As a result, some activities that are conducted as part of the mining or production operations might be regulated separately under NEMA. Depending on the circumstances the EMP that is submitted as part of the MPRDA application procedure might have to be extended to address these additional incidental activities or a separate environmental authorisation might need to be considered. Some of the additional listed activities that could be applicable to the mineral and petroleum industry are:
- the construction of infrastructure for the generation of electricity;
- the construction of coal storage facilities;
- construction of facilities for the bulk transportation of sewerage or storm water;
- construction of canals, bridges, dams, reservoirs and bulk storm water outlets;
- earth moving activities in, or within one hundred meters of the sea, an estuary or littoral active zone;
- construction of roads with a reserve wider than thirteen and a half meters or without a reserve wider than eight meters;
- the physical alteration of more than twenty hectares of undeveloped land for industrial use;
- construction of railway lines; and
- the bulk transport of dangerous goods.
Additional considerations in NEMA
In addition to the requirement to obtain authorisation to conduct certain activities, NEMA also regulates the following matters that should be taken into consideration:
- the requirement to provide a “financial provision“, such as a bank guarantee, that can be used to undertake rehabilitation and mine closure (section 24P);
- performance monitoring and assessment (section 24Q);
- the management of residue stockpiles and residue deposits, including discard, tailings, dumps and waste rock (section 24S); and
- the continuing environmental obligations and mine closure requirements (section 24R).